A soil washing process was applied to remediate arsenic (As)-contaminated stream sediments around an abandoned mine in Goro, Korea. Laboratory scale soil washing experiments for As-contaminated stream sediments were performed under various washing conditions in order to maximize As removal efficiency. Stream sediments were taken from two sites (S1 and S5) along the main stream connected to an abandoned mine. Stream sediments at the two sites were divided into two groups (≥0.35 and <0.35 mm in diameter), giving four types of sediments, which were thereupon used for soil washing experiments. The results of soil washing experiments involving various pH conditions suggested that As removal efficiency is very high in both strongly acidic and basic solutions (pH 1 and 13), regardless of sediment type. Removal efficiencies for fine sediments from S1 and S5 were >95% after 1 h of washing with 0.2 M citric acid (C6H8O7). When using 0.2 M citric acid mixed with 0.1 M potassium phosphate (KH2PO4), the As removal efficiency increased to 100%. When recycled washing solution was applied, As removal efficiency was maintained at a level greater than 70%, even after eight recycling events. This suggests that the recycling of washing solution could be successfully applied as a means of decreasing the cost of the washing process. Results from the experiments suggest that soil washing is a potentially useful process for the remediation of As-contaminated stream sediments around abandoned mines.