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Sodium Fluoride Arrests Renal G2/M Phase Cell-Cycle Progression by Activating ATM-Chk2-P53/Cdc25C Signaling Pathway in Mice

Authors
  • Luo, Qin
  • Guo, Hongrui
  • Kuang, Ping
  • Cui, Hengmin
  • Deng, Huidan
  • Liu, Huan
  • Lu, Yujiao
  • Wei, Qin
  • Chen, Linlin
  • Fang, Jing
  • Zuo, Zhicai
  • Deng, Junliang
  • Li, Yinglun
  • Wang, Xun
  • Zhao, Ling
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Publisher
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
Dec 11, 2018
Volume
51
Issue
5
Pages
2421–2433
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1159/000495899
PMID: 30537743
Source
Karger
Keywords
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Background/Aims: Excessive fluoride intake can induce cytotoxicity, DNA damage and cell-cycle changes in many tissues and organs, including the kidney. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of fluoride-induced renal cell-cycle changes are not well understood at present. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate how sodium fluoride (NaF) induces cell-cycle changes in renal cells. Methods: Two hundred forty ICR mice were randomly assigned to four equal groups for intragastric administration of NaF (0, 12, 24 and 48 mg/kg body weight/day) for 42 days. Kidneys were taken to measure changes of the cell-cycle at 21 and 42 days of the experiment, using flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot methods. Results: NaF, at more than 12 mg/kg body weight, induced G2/M phase cell-cycle arrest in the renal cells, which was supported by the finding of significantly increased percentages of renal cells in the G2/M phase. We found also that G2/M phase cell-cycle arrest was accompanied by up-regulation of p-ATM, p-Chk2, p-p53, p-Cdc25C, p-CDK1, p21, and Gadd45a protein expression levels; up-regulation of ATM, Chk2, p53, p21, and Gadd45a mRNA expression levels; down-regulation of CyclinB1, mdm2, PCNA protein expression levels; and down-regulation of CyclinB1, CDK1, Cdc25C, mdm2, and PCNA mRNA expression levels. Conclusion: In this mouse model, NaF, at more than 12 mg/ kg, induced G2/M phase cell-cycle arrest by activating the ATM-Chk2-p53/Cdc25C signaling pathway, which inhibits the proliferation of renal cells and development of the kidney. Activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53/Cdc25C signaling pathway is the mechanism of NaF-induced renal G2/M phase cell-cycle arrest in this model.

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