ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate in the literature the relation of socioeconomic factors in the incidence of the disease and other outcomes related to leprosy. Method: Integrative review conducted in Lilacs, Medline, Scopus databases and SciELO online library with studies from 2000 to 2016. Results: 32 studies were included. Only studies that analyzed statistical associations of socioeconomic factors and outcomes related to leprosy were selected. Conclusion: Leprosy is greatly affected by the social context in which the patient is inserted, the chances of exposure to illness are the result of a set of not only individual aspects, but also of contexts or collective conditions. It is imperative for Nursing, as an essential part of the multiprofessional team entrusted with the care and surveillance of the disease, to recognize these factors to predict unfavorable outcomes and to develop new practices capable of reducing inequities.