Using a social-ecological framework, we identify social determinants that interact to influence sleep health, identify gaps in the literature, and make recommendations for targeting sleep health in rural mothers. Rural mothers experience unique challenges and protective factors in maintaining adequate sleep health during the postpartum and early maternal years. Geographic isolation, barriers to comprehensive behavioral medicine services, and intra-rural ethno-racial disparities are discussed at the societal (e.g., public policy), social (e.g., community) and individual levels (e.g., stress) of the social-ecological model. Research on sleep health would benefit from attention to methodological considerations of factors affecting rural mothers such as including parity in population-level analyses or applying community-based participatory research principles. Future sleep health programs would benefit from using existing social support networks to disseminate sleep health information, integrating behavioral health services into clinical care frameworks, and tailoring culturally-appropriate Telehealth/mHealth programs to enhance the sleep health of rural mothers.