The article’s aim is to compare the opposite processes of social exclusion and inclusion in South Africa and in the Czech Republic, in the past and at the present time. Even though these societies differ culturally and geographically, the comparison of some important factors, which are causing the exclusion of some people groups, might be interesting. In both cases we will closely follow the social, ethnic and racial groups, which are mostly excluded in the given environment. In South Africa it concerns Black and Coloured Africans, and in the Czech Republic the Roma ethnic minority group, the only ethnic group which is to a high extent excluded. In the history of these two countries we can find a similar historic aspect, both of them had experienced totalitarian regimes. Today, with the benefit of more twenty years, we can see the changes, which both these countries have undergone, and observe as well how these changes influenced the processes of inclusion and exclusion of the given social, racial and ethnic groups.