Resilience theory has been suggested as a framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men. Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black men who have sex with men experience additional health disparities including elevated HIV incidence rates, victimization, and poor physical health. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one's social environment, this qualitative study investigates resilience processes and HIV transmission risk among a sample of 21 substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men. Data from in-depth interviews describe the social environmental context in which resilience is exhibited and document the influence of homophobia, expressions of agency, and access to social, economic, and cultural capital on resilience processes. Central to this are expressions of hidden resilience, in which African American/Black men who have sex with men mitigate risk and experience their lives as subjectively successful, whether or not outsiders see it as such.