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Sneddon syndrome: under diagnosed disease, complex clinical manifestations and challenging diagnosis. A case-based review.

Authors
  • Kong, Steve S1
  • Azarfar, Azin2, 3
  • Bhanusali, Neha4
  • 1 University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL, USA.
  • 2 University of Central Florida HCA Healthcare GME, 6850 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL, 32827, USA. [email protected]
  • 3 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL, USA. [email protected]
  • 4 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Rheumatology International
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
May 01, 2021
Volume
41
Issue
5
Pages
987–991
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00296-020-04625-1
PMID: 32533291
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Herein, we report a case-based review of the Sneddon Syndrome (SS), a rare chronic condition which affects small to medium blood vessels. It is known by its skin presentation, livedo racemosa (LRC), and the relapsing cerebrovascular events. However, neither LRC nor cerebrovascular events are exclusive to SS. A 36-year-old female with history of mitral valve prolapse, hypothyroidism, Raynaud phenomenon, hypertension, migraines, and four episodes of transient ischemic attacks (TIA), presented to our clinic with new skin findings, suggestive of LRC. Based on her previous history, current presentation and skin biopsy results, she was diagnosed with SS secondary to antiphospholipid syndrome. The present report illustrates the difficulty in recognizing SS and how the heterogeneity of the disease may be contributing to the difficulty making a distinct diagnosis.

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