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Smoking, sugar, and inflammatory bowel disease.

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Abstract

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE 1209 MontgomeryHighway • Birmingham, Alabama 35216-2809 • T E L(205) 978-5000 • FAX (205) 978-5005 • E-MAILa s r m @ a s r m . o rg • URLw w w. a s r m . o rg PATIENT’S FACT SHEET Smoking and Infertility The health risks of tobacco smoking are well known with regard to diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. Substantial harmful effects of cigarette smoke on fertility have become apparent, but are not generally appreciated. Cigarette smoking has a negative impact on the ability to become pregnant and carry a pregnancy to term. Impact of cigarette smoking on re p roduction in women: Virtually all scientific studies support the conclusion that smoking has an adverse impact on fertility. The prevalence of infertility is higher, and the time it takes to conceive is longer, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Active smoking by either partner has adverse effects, and the impact of passive cigarette smoke exposure is only slightly smaller than for active smoking. Research indicates that cigarette smoking is harmful to a woman’s ovaries, and the degree of harm is dependent upon the amount and the period of time a woman smokes. Smoking appears to accelerate the loss of eggs and reproductive function and may advance the time of menopause by several years. Components in cigarette smoke have been shown to interfere with the ability of cells in the ovary to make estrogen and to cause a woman’s eggs (oocytes) to be more prone to genetic abnormalities. Smoking is strongly associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriage and possibly ectopic pregnancy as well. Pregnant smokers are more likely to have low birth weight babies and premature birth. The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) also increases in households where someone smokes. Impact of cigarette smoking on assisted reproductive therapy outcomes: Nearly twice as many in vitro fertilization (IVF) attempts are required to conceive in smokers than in nonsmok

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