Smiles as Multipurpose Social Signals.
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address: [email protected]
School of Psychology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
- Published Article
Trends in cognitive sciences
- Publication Date
Nov 01, 2017
The human smile is highly variable in both its form and the social contexts in which it is displayed. A social-functional account identifies three distinct smile expressions defined in terms of their effects on the perceiver: reward smiles reinforce desired behavior; affiliation smiles invite and maintain social bonds; and dominance smiles manage hierarchical relationships. Mathematical modeling uncovers the appearance of the smiles, and both human and Bayesian classifiers validate these distinctions. New findings link laughter to reward, affiliation, and dominance, and research suggests that these functions of smiles are recognized across cultures. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the smile can be productively investigated according to how it assists the smiler in meeting the challenges and opportunities inherent in human social living.
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This record was last updated on 06/09/2018 and may not reflect the most current and accurate biomedical/scientific data available from NLM.
The corresponding record at NLM can be accessed at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28964655