The paper presents a brief review of literature data on clinical effects of sleep deprivation (SD), short-term deprivation (up to 40 h), in particular. SD was studied for effects on patients with defected cerebral dopaminergic systems (parkinsonism, dystonic hyperkinesis, persistent lactorrhea-amenorrhea, acromegaly). The control was made using clinical, electrophysiological, psychological, motor and biochemical tests. SD was compared to L-Dopa, parlodel, lisenil action. SD is shown to have therapeutic and differential diagnostic significance in varying pathological conditions of cerebral dopaminergic systems.