Sixty Israeli patients, 30 with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and 30 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and secondary SS, were evaluated. The Schirmer-1 test and a positive labial salivary gland biopsy were found to be the most helpful tools in assessing the diagnosis of SS. Extraglandular features such as Raynaud's phenomenon, lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement as well as parotid gland enlargement (p < 0.05) were more common in primary SS. Antinuclear antibodies, especially anti-Ro (SSA) and anti-La (SSB) were also more common in primary SS (p < 0.05). Our results are in accord with those of many European centers, despite the different genetic background.