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In situ preparation of P, O co-doped carbon spheres for high-energy density supercapacitor

Authors
  • Ji, Yajun1
  • Deng, Yalei1
  • Wu, Hongmei1
  • Tong, Zhixiang1
  • 1 University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, College of Science, Jungong Road 334#, Shanghai, 200093, China , Shanghai (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Publication Date
Apr 20, 2019
Volume
49
Issue
6
Pages
599–607
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10800-019-01308-z
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

AbstractPhosphorus and oxygen co-doped carbon spheres with formaldehyde and resorcinol as precursor were successfully prepared by using phosphoric acid solution as phosphorus source and catalyst. When the pH value of applied phosphoric acid solution is set at 1.38, the spherical carbon materials can be obtained. The corresponding specific surface area can reach 739.48 m2 g−1, and the phosphorus amount can be 0.44 at.%. By contrast, bulk carbon materials were produced when the pH value increased to 3.72. The corresponding specific surface area decreased to 444.3 m2 g−1, and the phosphorus amount declined to 0.10 at.%. It is demonstrated that spherical carbon materials exhibit superior electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance can reach 297.5 F g−1 at the scan rate of 1 mV s−1. Symmetric supercapacitors were constructed with KOH and Na2SO4 as electrolytes, respectively. The specific capacitance can reach 186.8 F g−1 at the current density of 0.1 A g−1 when KOH is used as electrolyte and its energy density can reach up to 50.86 Wh kg−1. However, the stability of the device is relatively poor. In contrast, when sodium sulfate is used as the electrolyte, after 5000 cycles of constant current charge and discharge, the capacity is still 84.09% remaining, exhibiting excellent cycle stability. In addition, the energy density of the device can reach 39.4 Wh kg−1. Even when the power density is 4000 W kg−1, the energy density can still reach 10 Wh kg−1. The obtained materials show great potential for practical application.Graphical abstract

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