Monoaromatic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and mixture of xylenes are now considered as widespread contaminants of groundwater. In situ bioremediation under natural attenuation or enhanced remediation has been successfully used for removal of organic pollutants, including monoaromatic compounds, from groundwater. Results published indicate that in some sites, intrinsic bioremediation can reduce the monoaromatic compounds content of contaminated water to reach standard levels of potable water. However, engineering bioremediation is faster and more efficient. Also, studies have shown that enhanced anaerobic bioremediation can be applied for many BTEX contaminated groundwaters, as it is simple, applicable and economical. This paper reviews microbiology and metabolism of monoaromatic biodegradation and in situ bioremediation for BTEX removal from groundwater under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It also discusses the factors affecting and limiting bioremediation processes and interactions between monoaromatic pollutants and other compounds during the remediation processes.