BackgroundChemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is not only one of the most common causes of dose reduction or discontinuation of cancer treatment, but it can also permanently decrease the quality of life of cancer patients and survivors. Notably, Sirt2 protects many organs from various injuries, including diabetic peripheral neuropathy. As demonstrated previously by our laboratory and others, the overexpression of Sirt2 can improve cisplatin-induced neuropathy, although the mechanism is still unclear.ResultsIn this study, the underlying mechanism by which Sirt2 protects neurons from cisplatin-induced injury was explored using the RNAseq technique in cultured rodent neurons. Sirt2 status was modified by genetic knockout (Sirt2/KO) and was then reconstituted in Sirt2/KO cells (Sirt2/Res). We observed 323 upregulated genes and 277 downregulated genes in Sirt2-expressing cells (Sirt2/Res) compared to Sirt2-deficient cells (Sirt2/KO). Pathway analysis suggested that Sirt2 may affect several pathways, such as MAPK, TNF, and cytokine–cytokine interaction. Furthermore, cisplatin-induced changes to the transcriptome are strongly associated with Sirt2 status. Cisplatin induced distinctive transcriptome changes for 227 genes in Sirt2-expressing cells and for 783 genes in Sirt2-deficient cells, while changes in only 138 of these genes were independent of Sirt2 status. Interestingly, changes in the p53 pathway, ECM–receptor interactions, and cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions were induced by cisplatin only in Sirt2-deficient cells.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated that Sirt2 regulates the transcriptome in cultured rodent neuronal cells. Furthermore, Sirt2-associated transcriptome regulation may be an important mechanism underlying the role of Sirt2 in organ protection, such as in cisplatin-induced neuronal injury. Sirt2 may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.