Nitrogen and phosphorous are important inorganic water pollutants that pose a major threat to the environment and health of both humans and animals. The physical and chemical ways to remove these pollutants from water and soil are expensive and harsh, so biological removal becomes the method of choice to alleviate the problem without any side effects. The identification of microorganisms capable of simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification has greatly simplified the sequestration of nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) into dinitrogen (N2). Further, the discovery of phosphorous accumulating organisms offers greater economic benefits because these organisms can favourably and simultaneously remove both nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewaters hence reducing the nutrient burden. The stability of the system and removal efficiency of inorganic pollutants can be enhanced by the use of immobilized organisms. However, limited work has been done so far in this direction and there is a need to further the efforts towards refining process efficiency by testing low-cost substrates and diverse microbial populations for the total eradication of these contaminants from wastewaters.