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Simultaneous Mapping of Vasculature, Hypoxia, and Proliferation Using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI, 18F-FMISO PET, and 18F-FLT PET in Relation to Contrast Enhancement in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

  • Collet, Solène1, 2
  • Guillamo, Jean-Sébastien1, 3, 4
  • Berro, David Hassanein1, 5
  • Chakhoyan, Ararat1
  • Constans, Jean-Marc1, 6
  • Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle1, 7, 8
  • Derlon, Jean-Michel1
  • Hatt, Mathieu9
  • Visvikis, Dimitris9
  • Guillouet, Stéphane10
  • Perrio, Cécile10
  • Bernaudin, Myriam1
  • Valable, Samuel1
  • 1 Normandie University, UNICAEN, CEA, CNRS, ISTCT/CERVOxy Group, GIP Cyceron, Caen, France;
  • 2 Radiophysics Department, Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France;
  • 3 Department of Neurology, CHU de Caen, Caen, France;
  • 4 Department of Neurology, CHU de Nimes, Nimes, France;
  • 5 Department of Neurosurgery, CHU de Caen, Caen, France;
  • 6 Department of Neuroradiology, CHU de Caen, Caen, France;
  • 7 Department of Pathology, CHU de Caen, Caen, France;
  • 8 Department of Neuropathology, GHU Paris Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Paris, France;
  • 9 LaTIM, INSERM, UMR 1101, University of Brest, Brest, France; and
  • 10 Normandie University, UNICAEN, CEA, CNRS, ISTCT/LDM-TEP Group, GIP Cyceron, Caen, France
Published Article
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2021
DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.120.249524
PMID: 34016725
PMCID: PMC8724903
PubMed Central
  • Clinical Investigation


Conventional MRI plays a key role in the management of patients with high-grade glioma, but multiparametric MRI and PET tracers could provide further information to better characterize tumor metabolism and heterogeneity by identifying regions having a high risk of recurrence. In this study, we focused on proliferation, hypervascularization, and hypoxia, all factors considered indicative of poor prognosis. They were assessed by measuring uptake of 18F-3'-deoxy-3'-18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps, and uptake of 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO), respectively. For each modality, the volumes and high-uptake subvolumes (hot spots) were semiautomatically segmented and compared with the contrast enhancement (CE) volume on T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced (T1w-Gd) images, commonly used in the management of patients with glioblastoma. Methods: Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI (31 patients), 18F-FLT PET (20 patients), or 18F-FMISO PET (20 patients), for a total of 31 patients, was performed on preoperative glioblastoma patients. Volumes and hot spots were segmented on SUV maps for 18F-FLT PET (using the fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian algorithm) and 18F-FMISO PET (using a mean contralateral image + 3.3 SDs) and on rCBV maps (using a mean contralateral image + 1.96 SDs) for dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI and overlaid on T1w-Gd images. For each modality, the percentages of the peripheral volumes and the peripheral hot spots outside the CE volume were calculated. Results: All tumors showed highly proliferated, hypervascularized, and hypoxic regions. The images also showed pronounced heterogeneity of both tracers regarding their uptake and rCBV maps, within each individual patient. Overlaid volumes on T1w-Gd images showed that some proliferative, hypervascularized, and hypoxic regions extended beyond the CE volume but with marked differences between patients. The ranges of peripheral volume outside the CE volume were 1.6%–155.5%, 1.5%–89.5%, and 3.1%–78.0% for 18F-FLT, rCBV, and 18F-FMISO, respectively. All patients had hyperproliferative hot spots outside the CE volume, whereas hypervascularized and hypoxic hot spots were detected mainly within the enhancing region. Conclusion: Spatial analysis of multiparametric maps with segmented volumes and hot spots provides valuable information to optimize the management and treatment of patients with glioblastoma.

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