A total of 684 patients who had not been diagnosed with renal cyst but had undergone abdominal ultrasonography for various reasons were evaluated. Patients with and without renal cyst were classified into two groups and were compared in terms of hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia (HL), diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity (body mass index: > or = 30 kg/m2) prevalence. Although 94 patients (13.7%) were established with a renal cyst, 590 patients (86.3%) did not have a renal cyst. The mean age of the patients established with a simple renal cyst was 67.3 +/- 12.1 years (range: 28-82 years); 54 (57.4%) of them were women and 40 (42.6%) were men. Of the patients established with a simple renal cyst, 64 (68.1%) had HT, 40 (42.6%) had DM, 20 (21.3%) had HL, 42 (44.7%) were obese, 18 (19.1%) had nephrolithiasis, and 6 (6.4%) had urinary tract infection. Of the patients without a cyst, 272 (46.1%) had DM, 212 (35.9%) had HT, 122 (20.7%) had HL, and 96 (16.3%) were obese. HT and obesity were significantly higher in patients with a renal cyst when compared with those without a cyst. However, although HL incidence was higher in patients with a cyst, the difference was not significant statistically. HT, HL, and obesity are more prevalent in patients with a renal cyst when compared with patients without. Consequently, patients with a simple renal cyst should be evaluated and followed up in terms of atherosclerotic risk factors.