Submersed macrophytes accumulate large amounts of macro- and trace elements from the environment and, therefore, are frequently used as indicators of water pollution and tools to remove pollutants from contaminated waters. This study provides evidences that the quantity of macro- and trace elements accumulated in the macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum depends strongly on the seasonality, on the vertical position of the plant material and on the biofilm cover. Element contents of macrophytes with and without biofilm cover and that of vertical plant sections were investigated by an ICP-MS technique in three different habitats, at the beginning and at the end of the vegetation period. Results demonstrated that the element concentrations of Ceratophyllum demersum dropped to one-half and one-eighth by the end of the summer; and the amount of certain elements in the lower part of plants were up to six times higher than in the upper and in plants with well-developed epiphytic microbial community 2-5-fold higher than in plants without biofilm. These results help in phytoremediation practice and in setting up future biomonitoring studies. When it is necessary to calculate the exact amount of elements which can be accumulated by plants in a polluted environment or should be removed from a contaminated water by harvesting macrophytes, it is of high importance to consider the month of the study, the plant parts harvested and the biofilm cover. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.