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Lightweight Proof of Game (LPoG): A Proof of Work (PoW)'s Extended Lightweight Consensus Algorithm for Wearable Kidneys.

Authors
  • Kumar, Adarsh1
  • Kumar Sharma, Deepak2
  • Nayyar, Anand3, 4
  • Singh, Saurabh5
  • Yoon, Byungun5
  • 1 Department of Systemics, School of Computer Science, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, India. , (India)
  • 2 Department of Informatics, School of Computer Science, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, India. , (India)
  • 3 Graduate School, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
  • 4 Faculty of Information Technology, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
  • 5 Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Korea. , (North Korea)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Sensors
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
May 19, 2020
Volume
20
Issue
10
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/s20102868
PMID: 32438545
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

In healthcare, interoperability is widely adopted in the case of cross-departmental or specialization cases. As the human body demands multiple specialized and cross-disciplined medical experiments, interoperability of business entities like different departments, different specializations, the involvement of legal and government monitoring issues etc. are not sufficient to reduce the active medical cases. A patient-centric system with high capability to collect, retrieve, store or exchange data is the demand for present and future times. Such data-centric health processes would bring automated patient medication, or patient self-driven trusted and high satisfaction capabilities. However, data-centric processes are having a huge set of challenges such as security, technology, governance, adoption, deployment, integration etc. This work has explored the feasibility to integrate resource-constrained devices-based wearable kidney systems in the Industry 4.0 network and facilitates data collection, liquidity, storage, retrieval and exchange systems. Thereafter, a Healthcare 4.0 processes-based wearable kidney system is proposed that is having the blockchain technology advantages. Further, game theory-based consensus algorithms are proposed for resource-constrained devices in the kidney system. The overall system design would bring an example for the transition from the specialization or departmental-centric approach to data and patient-centric approach that would bring more transparency, trust and healthy practices in the healthcare sector. Results show a variation of 0.10 million GH/s to 0.18 million GH/s hash rate for the proposed approach. The chances of a majority attack in the proposed scheme are statistically proved to be minimum. Further Average Packet Delivery Rate (ADPR) lies between 95% to 97%, approximately, without the presence of outliers. In the presence of outliers, network performance decreases below 80% APDR (to a minimum of 41.3%) and this indicates that there are outliers present in the network. Simulation results show that the Average Throughput (AT) value lies between 120 Kbps to 250 Kbps.

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