In this study we investigate the effects of short-term hypergravity on lung and heart neurotrophins and mast cell distribution. Our results showed that brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA expression are increased in the lungs of mice exposed to hypergravity while in the heart hypergravity causes a marked reduction in BDNF mRNA expression, and a decrease in BDNF protein. Compared to controls, nerve growth factor (NGF) protein was expressed more in the heart of rotated mice. These observations demonstrate that altered hypergravity can affect, though differentially, the local expression of NGF and BDNF proteins and their mRNAs in the lung and heart and indicates that short-term exposure to hypergravity causes a marked increase in BDNF, but not in NGF in the lungs of adult mice. Moreover, mast cells, which are NGF-producing cells and implicated in cardiac and respiratory activity, increased in number in proximity to blood vessels in the heart and in lung airway epithelium of rotated mice. This study indicates that hypergravity influences cardiovascular and respiratory tissue and suggests a neurotrophin involvement in the reaction to this environmental exposure.