The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been gradually acknowledged over the last four decades. Initially perceived as unwanted products of detrimental oxidative stress, they have been upgraded since, and now ROS are also known to be essential for the regulation of physiological cellular functions through redox signaling. In the majority of cases, metabolic demands, along with other stimuli, are vital for ROS formation and their actions. In this review, we focus on the role of ROS in regulating cell functioning and communication among themselves. The relevance of ROS in therapy concepts is also addressed here.