This retrospective study compared the 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes of short implants (6 mm) (short group), and standard-length implants (≥9mm) placed after a vertical augmentation with autologous bone blocks (augmentation group), supporting partial fixed prostheses in the posterior mandible. Forty-five partially edentulous patients were enrolled in the study and evaluated after 5 years: 22 (51 implants) in the augmentation group and 23 (46 implants) in the short group. Eight surgical complications occurred in the augmentation group versus none in the short group (P=0.003). One short implant failed before loading and one standard-length implant failed after 4 years because of peri-implantitis (P=1.0). Eight biological and two prosthetic complications occurred in the augmentation group vs. three biological and three prosthetic complications in the short group (P=0.09 and P=1.0, respectively). A mean marginal bone loss of 1.61±1.12mm in the augmentation group and 0.68±0.68mm in the short group was found (P=0.002). Within the limitations of this study, both techniques resulted in successful clinical results after 5 years, but short implants exhibited less surgical complications and marginal bone loss than standard-length implants placed in augmented bone.