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A shock flash breaking out of a dusty red supergiant.

Authors
  • Li, Gaici1
  • Hu, Maokai2
  • Li, Wenxiong3, 4
  • Yang, Yi5
  • Wang, Xiaofeng6, 7
  • Yan, Shengyu1
  • Hu, Lei2, 8
  • Zhang, Jujia9, 10, 11
  • Mao, Yiming12
  • Riise, Henrik13
  • Gao, Xing14
  • Sun, Tianrui2
  • Liu, Jialian1
  • Xiong, Dingrong9, 10
  • Wang, Lifan15
  • Mo, Jun1
  • Iskandar, Abdusamatjan14, 16
  • Xi, Gaobo1
  • Xiang, Danfeng1
  • Wang, Lingzhi4, 17
  • And 24 more
  • 1 Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. , (China)
  • 2 Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China. , (China)
  • 3 The School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. , (Israel)
  • 4 Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. , (China)
  • 5 Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
  • 6 Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. [email protected]. , (China)
  • 7 Beijing Planetarium, Beijing Academy of Science and Technology, Beijing, China. [email protected]. , (China)
  • 8 McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
  • 9 Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China. , (China)
  • 10 Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China. , (China)
  • 11 International Centre of Supernovae, Yunnan Key Laboratory, Kunming, China. , (China)
  • 12 National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. , (China)
  • 13 Skjeivik Observatory, Strand, Norway. , (Norway)
  • 14 Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China. , (China)
  • 15 Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
  • 16 School of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. , (China)
  • 17 South America Center for Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. , (China)
  • 18 Xingming Observatory, Urumqi, China. , (China)
  • 19 Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), Granada, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 20 Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Escuela de Ingenierias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 21 G. M. Grechko Nizhny Novgorod Planetarium, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
  • 22 Minin University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
  • 23 Ka-Dar/Astroverty, Nizhny Arkhyz, Russia.
  • 24 Vedrus Observatory, Azovskaya, Russia.
  • 25 Crimean Astrophysical Observatory RAS, Nauchnyi, Russia.
  • 26 Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.
  • 27 Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
  • 28 Trevinca Skies, Ourense, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 29 University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nature
Publisher
Springer Nature
Publication Date
Dec 13, 2023
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-06843-6
PMID: 38093004
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Shock-breakout emission is light that arises when a shockwave, generated by the core-collapse explosion of a massive star, passes through its outer envelope. Hitherto, the earliest detection of such a signal was at several hours after the explosion1, although a few others had been reported2-7. The temporal evolution of early light curves should provide insights into the shock propagation, including explosion asymmetry and environment in the vicinity, but this has been hampered by the lack of multiwavelength observations. Here we report the instant multiband observations of a type II supernova (SN 2023ixf) in the galaxy M101 (at a distance of 6.85 ± 0.15 Mpc; ref. 8), beginning at about 1.4 h after the explosion. The exploding star was a red supergiant with a radius of about 440 solar radii. The light curves evolved rapidly, on timescales of 1-2 h, and appeared unusually fainter and redder than predicted by the models9-11 within the first few hours, which we attribute to an optically thick dust shell before it was disrupted by the shockwave. We infer that the breakout and perhaps the distribution of the surrounding dust were not spherically symmetric. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

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