An abnormal female producing only female progeny was found in Lymantria dispar in Hokkaido, Japan, in July 1996. Similarly, its progeny produced only females. Egg hatch rates were near 50% in all-female matrilines. Therefore, a certain cytoplasmic factor was thought to kill males in eggs differentially, resulting in only female hosts. In the next generation, the field population was estimated to contain 9.1% abnormal females. Severe inbreeding depression was also observed in egg hatch rates during confirmation of maternal inheritance. The cost of inbreeding was estimated at 0. 395, which is one of the highest in insects. Inbreeding avoidance by their host has been cited as one of the advantages of a male-killing factor, but we suggest that this is not applicable in this moth.