A 33 year old man developed acute oliguric failure lasting 66 days, eight days after admission with multiple gun shot wounds. On day 99 after admission, serum calcium was elevated mildly at 2.54 mmol/l (normal range 2.1-2.5 mmol/l). Serum parathormone was undetectable. He was discharged soon afterwards. He presented again on day 164 with nausea, vomiting and blurred vision. Fundoscopy revealed an ischaemic retinopathy and extensive keratopathy. Serum calcium was 3.48 mmol/l and serum creatinine 262 umol/l (normal range 40-110 umol/l). Repeat parathormone was undetectable and there was no evidence of myeloma, sarcoidosis or malignancy. Following treatment with intravenous saline and frusemide, serum calcium fell to a nadir of 3.05 mmol/l. On day 168 an infusion of sodium clodronate 300 mg was given. Twenty-four hours later serum calcium was 2.65 mmol/l and 48 hours later calcium was 2.26 mmol/l. Normocalcaemia was maintained for 17 days and severe hypercalcaemia never recurred. This is the first report in which biphosphonates have been successfully used to treat hypercalcaemia following acute renal failure thus obviating the need for further dialysis.