On 1 January 2018, a new regulation on 'Novel Food' has come into application in the EU. Insects and insect-based products are therefore included among the categories of food which constitute novel foods. Insects are nutrient-rich, produce fewer greenhouse gases and ammonia than conventional livestock, and have high feed conversion efficiency. Insects may be an alternative food source in the near future, but consideration of insects as a food requires scrutiny due to the risk of allergens. The aim of the present study was to develop a set of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect nine edible insect species directly in foods. Four sets of mPCRs were designed to detect Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Reiche & Fairmaire, 1849) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Tenebrio molitor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (mPCR-I), Acheta domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae (mPCR-II), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Zophobas atratus (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (mPCR-III), Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and Gryllodes sigillatus (Walker, 1869) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) (mPCR-IV). Results demonstrate that the panel of mPCRs allowed a rapid genetic identification of the insect species and has proved to be a sensible and highly discriminatory method. The assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food safety, in case of allergic consumers.