Serum nickel, copper, and zinc levels were monitored by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 15 women in the proliferative and luteal phases of their cycles before beginning Norplant contraception and 3 months later, and in 30 users of Norplant for 1 year or more. Serum nickel did not change significantly in short or longterm Norplant users in comparison with before Norplant self-controls or between groups, ranging from 0.221 to 0.28 mcg.dl. Serum copper rose from 100.07 mcg.dl in new users on Cycle Day 5 to 110.86 in ovulating women and 123.5 in nonovulating women in the control cycle. Copper was 118.7 before Norplant and not significantly different at 120.87 after 3 months. Copper levels were 104.26 in the 1st sample in longterm users, rising to 129.14 and 126.5 in ovulating and non-ovulating longterm users 3 months later. Zinc averaged 121.1 mcg/dl before Norplant on Day 5, falling to 94.86 and 97.38 in ovulating and nonovulating women in the luteal phase. Zinc rose slightly from 118.9 to 125.27 before and after 3 months on Norplant. Zinc fell from 107.9 to 91.86 and 94.61 in ovulating and nonovulating longterm users. The similarities and differences of these results with prior reports of trace element in oral and injectable contraceptive users are discussed.