ObjectiveTo determine the difference of serum levels of 10 adipokines (apelin, chemerin, fatty acid-binding protein-4, fibroblast growth factor-21, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, nesfatin-1, omentin-1, resistin, vaspin, and visfatin) among women with gestational diabetes and healthy pregnant controls.Materials and methodsLiterature search was conducted using the Medline (1966–2018), Scopus (2004–2018), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999–2018), Clinicaltrials.gov (2008–2018) and Google Scholar (2004–2018) databases, along with the reference list of the included studies.ResultsNinety-one studies were included in the present review, with a total number of 11,074 pregnant women. A meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high inter-study heterogeneity. Current evidence suggests that fatty acid-binding protein-4 levels are significantly increased in pregnancies complicated with gestational diabetes, while no association of serum apelin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 with the disease can be supported. Data regarding the rest adipokines are conflicting, since the available studies did not unanimously indicate a significant change of their levels in gestational diabetes.ConclusionsThe findings of the present systematic review suggest the promising role of fatty acid-binding protein-4 in the prediction of gestational diabetes, while inconsistent evidence exists regarding the rest novel adipokines. Future cohorts are needed to assess their predictive efficacy and fully elucidate their contribution in the disease.