The relationship of glucose in the blood with colorectal adenoma or cancer is not clear. Fructosamine, equivalent to total serum glycated proteins, is a marker of blood glucose levels in the previous 3 weeks. We evaluated in a case–control study the association between fructosamine and colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Cases were subjects with the first occurrence of one or more histologically confirmed colorectal adenomatous polyps removed after a complete colonoscopy (153 cases), and controls were subjects with normal colonoscopy performed in the same endoscopy units during the same period (84 controls). Serum fructosamine was measured by a colorimetric method. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. We found that in non-diabetic subjects the risk of colorectal adenoma increased with the level of fructosamine, and the odds ratio of colorectal adenoma in subjects with fructosamine levels higher than the median (270μg/100 ml), in comparison with subjects with fructosamine lower than the median, was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1–4.8). The risk of colorectal adenoma increased also with increasing levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, and decreased with increasing levels of fasting serum insulin. The results of this study show that the risk of colorectal adenoma increases with the level of fructosamine, an indicator of the level of glucose in the blood more sensitive to foods with a high glycemic index.