Teicoplanin and vancomycin are antibiotics widely used in the therapy of bone and joint infections. The aim of this study was to compare bone and serum concentrations of each antibiotic in guinea pigs after administration of 50 mg/kg of teicoplanin or vancomycin by the intravenous route. Serum and bone concentrations were determined immediately before and 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after drug administration by means of high performance liquid chromatography. Teicoplanin concentrations were always higher than vancomycin levels. Area under the concentration/time curve was significantly greater for teicoplanin than for vancomycin. In bone, teicoplanin concentration increased up to 6 h, while vancomycin reached its peak after 2 h. Moreover, teicoplanin showed markedly higher levels at 6, 12 and 24 h than vancomycin. In conclusion, the ability of teicoplanin to penetrate bone in greater amount than vancomycin confirms the potential use of teicoplanin in the treatment of bone infections and in the prophylaxis of orthopedic surgery.