Some patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) can generate an antibody response following vaccination with Neisseria meningitidis polysaccharide, but the duration of this protection is unknown. In this study, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses to serogroup C N. meningitidis of 23 patients with CVID and 23 sex- and age-matched controls were measured 1 year after vaccination with the plain A/C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The fold rise in serum bactericidal antibody geometric mean titers of the control group from prevaccination to 1 year postvaccination was significantly higher than that of the patient group (5.41- versus 2.96-fold, P = 0.009). Of 23 CVID patients, 8 had a poor response to vaccine (<4-fold rise) 3 weeks after vaccination, and low titers remained when measured 1 year later. Of the 15 CVID patients who had a normal response to vaccine (>/=4-fold rise) 3 weeks after vaccination, 6 cases failed to maintain protective SBA titers, whereas the remaining 9 had protective titers 1 year after vaccination. Only one of the 23 controls, who developed protective SBA titers after 3 weeks, lost the protective titers after 1 year. Among the patients, the presence of bronchiectasis and/or splenomegaly at enrollment was associated with poor SBA response to vaccine at 3 weeks and/or failure to maintain protective levels at 1 year. The results of this study demonstrate that a number of CVID patients can produce protective antibody titers that can persist for 1 year after vaccination, which lends strong support to the inclusion of polysaccharide vaccine in the immunization program for CVID patients.