BackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MS) is a common complication in renal transplant (RTx) recipients. This study aimed to explore the alterations and interrelationship of various adipokines in RTx recipients with and without MS. MethodsRTx recipients followed at our hospital were randomly selected for the cross-sectional study of MS. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria adopted for Asian populations were used to define MS. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of adipokines, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine parameters that were associated with serum adipokine levels. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between adipokines. ResultsA total of 280 RTx recipients were enrolled for the study. Seventy-three cases (26.1%) fulfilled the criteria of MS. A significantly higher serum leptin level was found in MS patients (16.61 ± 13.90 vs 8.00 ± 7.42 μg/mL; P < .0001). There was no significant difference in serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin between the 2 groups. Serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with serum resistin (r = 0.422; P < .0001) and visfatin levels (r = 0.224; P < .0001). Serum resistin level was positively correlated with serum visfatin level. All but serum visfatin level were negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Univariate logistic regression revealed the following variables to be associated with serum leptin level: metabolic syndrome, sex, body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, serum triglyceride, and uric acid. Multivariate analysis revealed that sex, body weight, BMI, and serum creatinine were associated with serum leptin level. ConclusionsCompared with RTx recipients without MS, patients with MS were associated with significantly higher serum leptin levels and similar adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin levels. A close interrelationship was also found in the serum levels of these adipokines.