Trichinellosis is constantly present in the sylvatic cycle in Slovakia, with several sporadic human outbreaks registered since the 1960s. The largest outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in 1998 and was related to the consumption of dog meat that had been added to smoked pork sausages. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic dogs in various regions of Slovakia. Out of 439 dogs tested, 56 (12.8%) were classified as a seropositive based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with confirmation by Western blotting. The highest seropositivity was recorded among dogs from the eastern part of Slovakia, in the Prešov (22.9%) and Košice (17.1%) regions, long considered to be highly endemic for Trichinella occurrence and where the prevalence of infection in the vulpine population is also the highest in Slovakia. Trichinella-seropositive animals were detected significantly more often in dogs kept in rural areas (21.1%) when compared with animals living in towns or suburban localities (7.7%). On the other hand, neither age, nor gender and size of the dogs were shown to be a significant factor for Trichinella infection (P > 0.05). The present results indicate that the dog population in Slovakia is at high risk of exposure to Trichinella parasites and could potentially represent a suitable host group for serological monitoring of Trichinella infection as convenient sentinel animals.