Purpose The economic and health implications of brucellosis are of particular concern in developing countries, primarily in the vulnerable sector of rural herders. A cross-sectional study was done in Boran breeds to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis, identify risk variables and assess public health implications in Borena zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia in the questionnaire survey. Methods The sampling animals were chosen from smallholders using a simple random sampling procedure. The study involved a total of 788 animals. Animals of both sex and different age groups with the age of 6 months or above found during the study interval were included. The Rose Bengal plate test was used to screen sera, and positive samples were subsequently retested using a Direct Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for confirmation. Results The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 7.6% (60/788) in the Direct Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test. Herd size, age, history of abortion, testicular hygroma, and retained fetal membrane were statistical significance for the Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05). Whereas, district, sex, body condition score, and management did not influence the disease occurrence (P>0.05). The majority of the participants, 91.7% (55/60) did not aware of the zoonotic implications of brucellosis. Only 10% (6/60) of interviewed respondents disposed of aborted fetuses and retained fetal membrane properly and the rest 90% (54/60) left in the environment. Ninety percent and 83.3% of the respondents revealed that they consumed raw milk and meat, respectively. Conclusion The presence of Brucella infection is highly correlated with age, history of abortion, and testicular hygroma. According to the collected data: sex, body condition score, district, and management had no statistically significant effect on Brucella occurrence. The majority of respondents were unaware of the disease’s zoonotic consequences. Finally, creating community awareness about its transmission, zoonotic significance, and hygienic practices were recommended.