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SEROLOGICAL SURVEY FOR SELECT INFECTIOUS AGENTS IN WILD MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) IN ARGENTINA, 1994-2008.

Authors
  • Uhart, Marcela1, 2
  • Thijl Vanstreels, Ralph Eric1, 3
  • Gallo, Luciana4
  • Cook, Robert A2, 5
  • Karesh, William B2, 6
  • 1 One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, VM3B, Davis, California 95616, USA.
  • 2 Field Veterinary Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10460, USA.
  • 3 Instituto de Pesquisa e Reabilitação de Animais Marinhos, Rodovia BR-262 km 0, Jardim América, Cariacica, Espírito Santo, 29140-130, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 4 Instituto de Biología de Organismos Marinos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Boulevard Brown 2915, Puerto Madryn, U9120ACD, Chubut, Argentina. , (Argentina)
  • 5 Science Based Support Consulting, 28 Sassinoro Boulevard, Cortlandt Manor, New York 10567, USA.
  • 6 EcoHealth Alliance, 460 W 34th Street, 17th Floor, New York, New York 10001, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of wildlife diseases
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
56
Issue
1
Pages
66–81
Identifiers
PMID: 31237822
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Despite being the most numerous penguin species in South America, exposure of the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) to pathogens has not yet been thoroughly assessed. We collected serum from 1,058 Magellanic Penguins at 10 breeding colonies along the entire latitudinal range of this species in Argentina. The work spanned 10 breeding seasons over 15 yr (1994-2008). Sera were tested for antibodies to select infectious agents. Antibodies reacting against 16 pathogens were detected (seroprevalence): Aspergillus sp. (15.1%), Chlamydia psittaci (6.5%), Salmonella Pullorum (3.1%), Salmonella Typhimurium (81.3%), Aviadenovirus sp. (18.1%), Duck atadenovirus A (23.6%), Anatid herpesvirus 1 (0.7%), Avian orthoreovirus (3.3%), Avian coronavirus M41 (43.5%), Avian coronavirus C46 (59.8%), Avian coronavirus A99 (37.4%), Avian coronavirus JMK (40.2%), Tremovirus A (0.3%), Avian avulavirus 1 (44.0%), Avian avulavirus 2 (43.8%), and Avian avulavirus 3 (46.6%). No antibodies were detected against nine infectious agents: Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1, Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2, Infectious bursal disease virus, Avastrovirus 2, West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Influenza A virus. While restricted by limitations inherent to serological methods, our results provide baseline knowledge for a key species in the South Atlantic Ocean. This information is valuable for adaptive conservation management in a time of increasing environmental stressors affecting the Patagonian Sea, one of the world's richest pelagic seabird communities.

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