Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from four patients with pyelonephritis were characterized by their O:K serotype, hemolysin production, mannose-resistant hemagglutination, and the serotype of the P fimbriae. These P fimbriae were serotyped with specific monoclonal antibodies. Serum samples from the patients were analyzed for the presence of specific antibodies to the P fimbriae. In all cases antifimbrial antibodies were found, strongly suggesting that these P fimbriae are expressed in vivo. However, the antibodies in the patient sera were not able to inhibit the mannose-resistant hemagglutination. This finding suggests that these antibodies react with the fimbrial components and not with the minor components which are responsible for adhesion.