Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a technique that allows for the simultaneous detection of expression levels of the entire genome without a priori knowledge of gene sequences, was used to examine the transcriptional expression pattern of the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pairwise comparison between the Tg2576 and nontransgenic SAGE libraries identified a number of differentially expressed genes in the Tg2576 SAGE library, some of which were not previously revealed by the microarray studies. Real-time PCR was used to validate a panel of genes selected from the SAGE analysis in the Tg2576 mouse brain, as well as the hippocampus and temporal cortex of sporadic AD and normal age-matched controls. NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 5 (NDUFA5) and FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 6 (FXYD6) were found to be significantly decreased in the Tg2576 mouse brain and AD hippocampus. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP), crystalline mu (CRYM), and neurogranin (NRGN) were significantly decreased in AD tissues. The gene ontologies represented in the Tg2576 data were statistically analyzed and demonstrated a significant under-representation of genes involved with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and odorant binding, while genes significantly over-represented were focused on cellular communication and cellular physiological processes. The novel approach of profiling the Tg2576 mouse brain using SAGE has identified different genes that could subsequently be examined for their potential as peripheral diagnostic and prognostic markers for Alzheimer's disease.