Chemokines are a superfamily of small chemotactic proteins. While increased levels of interleukin-8 have been measured in serum and urine during urinary tract infection, little is known about other chemokines in this condition. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta and interferon-gamma inducible protein (IP)-10 were measured in 30 patients with culture-proven urosepsis during a 3-day follow-up and in 11 healthy humans after intravenous injection of endotoxin (4 ng/kg). Urine and serum levels of MCP-1, MIP-1beta, and IP-10, but not of MIP-1alpha were elevated in patients on admission, and decreased after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Endotoxin administration to healthy subjects induced increases in plasma and urine concentrations of all four chemokines. These data indicate that clinical and experimental gram-negative infection in humans is associated with enhanced production of chemokines that act mainly on mononuclear cells and that these chemokines are at least in part locally produced.