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Sequencing and analysis of the prolate-headed lactococcal bacteriophage c2 genome and identification of the structural genes.

  • Lubbers, M W
  • Waterfield, N R
  • Beresford, T P
  • Le Page, R W
  • Jarvis, A W
Published Article
Applied and environmental microbiology
Publication Date
Dec 01, 1995
PMID: 8534101


The 22,163-bp genome of the lactococcal prolate-headed phage c2 was sequenced. Thirty-nine open reading frames (ORFs), early and late promoters, and a putative transcription terminator were identified. Twenty-two ORFs were in the early gene region, and 17 were in the late gene region. Putative genes for a DNA polymerase, a recombination protein, a sigma factor protein, a transcription regulatory protein, holin proteins, and a terminase were identified. Transcription of the early and late genes proceeded divergently from a noncoding 611-bp region. A 521-bp fragment contained within the 611-bp intergenic region could act as an origin of replication in Lactococcus lactis. Three major structural proteins, with sizes of 175, 90, and 29 kDa, and eight minor proteins, with sizes of 143, 82, 66, 60, 44, 42, 32, and 28 kDa, were identified. Several of these proteins appeared to be posttranslationally modified by proteolytic cleavage. The 175- and 90-kDa proteins were identified as the major phage head proteins, and the 29- and 60-kDa proteins were identified as the major tail protein and (possibly) the tail adsorption protein, respectively. The head proteins appeared to be covalently linked multimers of the same 30-kDa gene product. Phage c2 and prolate-headed lactococcal phage bIL67 (C. Schouler, S. D. Ehrlich, and M.-C. Chopin, Microbiology 140:3061-3069, 1994) shared 80% nucleotide sequence identity. However, several DNA deletions or insertions which corresponded to the loss or acquisition of specific ORFs, respectively, were noted. The identification of direct nucleotide repeats flanking these sequences indicated that recombination may be important in the evolution of these phages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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