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Sequências de culturas em sistema de semeadura direta: II - decomposição e liberação de nutrientes na entressafra

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Repositório Institucional UNESP
Keywords
  • Soil Cover
  • Macronutrients
  • Winter Crop
  • Cobertura Do Solo
  • Macronutrientes
  • Culturas De Inverno
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Abstract

Nutrients accumulated in dry crop residues and released in the decomposition process return to the soil and may become available to subsequent crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release of plant residues of different no-tillage crop sequences in the second growing season. A field experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Eutrudox in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil (48°18'W and 21°15'S), arranged in a randomized split-block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of combinations of three summer crops sequences (soybean-corn rotation, corn monoculture and soybean monoculture) with seven crops in the second growing season (maize, grain sorghum, sunflower, sunn hemp, pigeon pea, oilseed radish, and pearl millet). The experiment was initiated in 2002 and this study assessed the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. The decomposition of plant residues was evaluated 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days after management, using litter bags. The soil cover was evaluated immediately after chopping the residues and at the end of the growing season. The release rates from sunn hemp, maize, grain sorghum, and sunflower residues were lowest. Sunn hemp, pigeon pea, oilseed radish, and pearl millet released the highest amounts of nutrients during the decomposition period. Sunn hemp and pearl millet were most suitable as second season crops. The soil cover was poorest in the crop sequences with sunflower in the second growing season.

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