Coagulation activation with intravascular fibrin formation is a general finding in patients with sepsis. Low coagulation factors may be caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation, as well as by loss of plasma and impaired hepatic synthesis in the course of sepsis. The leading clinical symptom in consumption coagulopathy is bleeding. Therefore, treatment mainly consists of substitution of coagulation factors and platelets. Meningococcal and pneumococcal, as well as some other infections may lead to sepsis-induced purpura fulminans, a condition associated with microvascular thrombosis, necrosis, and haemorrhage. A typical laboratory sign is a very low plasma protein C level. Treatment with protein C concentrate or recombinant activated protein C (Drotrecogin alfa, activated) has been shown to be beneficial in sepsis-induced purpura fulminans. Unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin has been recommended for prophylaxis of venous thrombosis, but there are no clinical studies specifically on patients with sepsis. Antithrombin concentrate is used in patients with antithrombin deficiency treated with heparin for acute venous thrombosis or embolism, extracorporeal circulation procedures or other invasive procedures. There is no indication for general use of antithrombin concentrate in patients with sepsis even in patients with low plasma antithrombin levels. Drotrecogin alfa, activated, is used for treatment of patients with severe sepsis. Its use is not limited to patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation, although these patients appear to benefit especially from this therapy.