To evaluate whether self-discontinuation of a transurethral catheter is noninferior to office discontinuation in patients requiring indwelling catheterization for postoperative urinary retention after pelvic reconstructive surgery. In this randomized noninferiority trial, patients with postoperative urinary retention after pelvic reconstructive surgery were assigned to self-discontinuation or office discontinuation of their catheter 1 week after surgery. The primary outcome was a noninferiority comparison of postoperative urinary retention at 1 week. Self-discontinuation patients were instructed on home catheter removal on postoperative day 7. Office discontinuation patients underwent a standard voiding trial on postoperative day 6-8. Postoperative urinary retention at 1 week was defined as continued catheterization on postoperative day 6-8. Secondary outcomes included urinary tract infections (UTI), residual volume at 2 weeks, duration of catheter use, recurrent postoperative urinary retention, number of patient encounters, and visual analog scales (VAS) regarding patient experience. Given a known incidence of postoperative urinary retention at 1 week (16%) and 15% noninferiority margin, a sample size of 74 per group (n=148) was planned. From January 2017 through March 2019, 217 women were screened and 157 were analyzed: 78 self-discontinuation and 79 office discontinuation. Demographic characteristics and surgeries performed were similar. Eleven patients in each group experienced postoperative urinary retention at 1 week (14.1% self-discontinuation vs 13.9% office discontinuation, P=.97), establishing noninferiority (difference 0.2%, 95% CI: -1.00, 0.10). There were significantly fewer patient encounters with self-discontinuation (42/78, 53.8% vs 79/79, 100%). Self-discontinuation patients demonstrated better VAS scores regarding pain, ease, disruption, and likelihood to use the same method again (all P<.05). Though the rate of UTI was high, there was no difference between groups (59.0% self-discontinuation vs 66.7% office discontinuation, P=.32). Residual volume at 2 weeks, recurrent postoperative urinary retention, and duration of catheter use were also similar. Self-discontinuation of a transurethral catheter was noninferior to office-based discontinuation in the setting of postoperative urinary retention after pelvic reconstructive surgery. Self-discontinuation resulted in fewer patient encounters and improved patient experience. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02996968.