Therapeutic cancer vaccines that harness the immune system to reject cancer cells have shown great promise for cancer treatment. Although a wave of efforts have spurred to improve the therapeutic effect, unfavorable immunization microenvironment along with a complicated preparation process and frequent vaccinations substantially compromise the performance. Here, we report a novel microcapsule-based formulation for high-performance cancer vaccinations. The special self-healing feature provides a mild and efficient paradigm for antigen microencapsulation. After vaccination, these microcapsules create a favorable immunization microenvironment in situ, wherein antigen release kinetics, recruited cell behavior, and acid surrounding work in a synergetic manner. In this case, we can effectively increase the antigen utilization, improve the antigen presentation, and activate antigen presenting cells. As a result, effective T cell response, potent tumor inhibition, antimetastatic effects, and prevention of postsurgical recurrence are achieved with various types of antigens, while neoantigen was encapsuled and evaluated in different tumor models.