Self-assembling peptides could be considered a novel class of agents able to harvest an array of micro/nanostructures that are highly attractive in the biomedical field. By modifying their amino acid composition, it is possible to mime several biological functions; when assembled in micro/nanostructures, they can be used for a variety of purposes such as tissue regeneration and engineering or drug delivery to improve drug release and/or stability and to reduce side effects. Other significant advantages of self-assembled peptides involve their biocompatibility and their ability to efficiently target molecular recognition sites. Due to their intrinsic characteristics, self-assembled peptide micro/nanostructures are capable to load both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, and they are suitable to achieve a triggered drug delivery at disease sites by inserting in their structure’s stimuli-responsive moieties. The focus of this review was to summarize the most recent and significant studies on self-assembled peptides with an emphasis on their application in the biomedical field.