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Selenium in Endocrinology-Selenoprotein-Related Diseases, Population Studies, and Epidemiological Evidence.

Authors
  • Köhrle, Josef1
  • 1 Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany. , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Endocrinology
Publisher
The Endocrine Society
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2021
Volume
162
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1210/endocr/bqaa228
PMID: 33382424
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Selenium (Se), apart from iodine, iron, and calcium, is one of the nutrient-derived key elements strongly affecting the endocrine system. However, no specific hormonal "feedback" regulation for Se status has yet been identified, in contrast to the fine-tuned hormone network regulating Ca2+ and phosphate balance or hepcidin-related iron status. Since its discovery as an essential trace element, the effects of Se excess or deficiency on the endocrine system or components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-periphery feedback circuits, the thyroid hormone axis, glucoregulatory and adrenal hormones, male and female gonads, the musculoskeletal apparatus, and skin have been identified. Analysis of the Se status in the blood or via validated biomarkers such as the hepatically derived selenoprotein P provides valuable diagnostic insight and a rational basis for decision making on required therapeutic or preventive supplementation of risk groups or patients. Endocrine-related epidemiological and interventional evidence linking Se status to beneficial or potentially adverse actions of selected selenoproteins mediating most of the (patho-) physiological effects are discussed in this mini-review. Autoimmune thyroid disease, diabetes and obesity, male fertility, as well as osteoporosis are examples for which observational or interventional studies have indicated Se effects. The currently prevailing concept relating Se and selenoproteins to "oxidative stress," reactive oxygen species, radical hypotheses, and related strategies of pharmacological approaches based on various selenium compounds will not be the focus. The crucial biological function of several selenoproteins in cellular redox-regulation and specific enzyme reactions in endocrine pathways will be addressed and put in clinical perspective. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: [email protected]

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