In lung and liver cancers, p53 mutations are mostly G:C to T:A transversions. This type of mutation is known to be induced by benzo(a)pyrene and aflatoxin B1 which are associated with the etiology of lung and liver cancers, respectively. Using a novel assay based on DNA polymerase fingerprint analysis, we identified p53 nucleotides targeted by these carcinogens. Thirteen of 14 nucleotide residues of the p53 gene which underwent G:C to T:A mutations in lung cancers were targeted by benzo(a)pyrene. Similarly, aflatoxin B1 formed adducts at a mutational hotspot specific for liver cancer. The same nucleotide (third base of codon 249), which mutates rarely in lung cancers, was not a target for benzo(a)pyrene. These in vitro observations indicate that p53 mutational hotspots identified in different tumors are selected targets specifically for the etiologically defined environmental carcinogens.