Adoptive transfer with activated macrophages did not affect the normalized blood glucose levels in NOD-SCID recipients of admixed grafts until left nephrectomy 5 weeks post-macrophage transfer. Insulin-positive and porcine C-peptide-negative mouse islets were detected in the admixed grafts. The surviving mouse islets in the admixed grafts were surrounded but not infiltrated by macrophages. The nephrectomized recipients demonstrated sustained hyperglycemia and completely destroyed NICC xenografts in their remaining right kidneys 8 weeks after macrophage transfer. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence of porcine islet xenograft specific rejection by activated macrophages.