Multiple homeobox genes are expressed in haematopoietic cell lineages and their expression is cell-type specific. Thus we hypothesized that certain homeobox genes may play an important role in the process of haematopoiesis. To prove that issue, normal murine bone marrow cells were stimulated with appropriate Colony Stimulating Factors in the presence of mouse homeobox gene (Hox 2.3) sense or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and the effects on the haematopoietic colony formation were examined. Treatment of the cells to Hox 2.3 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides led to a selective inhibition of myeloid colony formation, both in size and in numbers, but without significant effect on erythroid and megakaryocytic haematopoiesis. Exposure to Hox 2.3 sense oligodeoxynucleotides (no-oligomers), had no such effect. It was further showed that inhibition of myelopoiesis by Hox 2.3 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides was dependent on the differentiation stage of target cells. These findings demonstrated that Hox 2.3 gene plays a critical role in regulating normal murine myelopoiesis.