High and low alcohol preference (HAP and LAP, respectively) mice were created by 10 generations of bidirectional selection for differences in two-bottle choice alcohol consumption. The progenitors used for selection were HS/lbg mice, which are a genetically defined, outbred stock. During selection, mice had 24-h, daily access to 10% alcohol (v/v) and water ad libitum for 30 days and were selected based on the alcohol (g/kg) consumed per day over the entire period. Food was available ad libitum. At S10, line means for alcohol consumption differed greatly, with consumption of over 12 g/kg per day in the HAP mice and less than 2 g/kg per day in the LAP mice. Realized heritability for bidirectional selection was approximately 0.2. Female mice consumed more alcohol than male mice. There were no differences between lines in alcohol elimination rate, nor were there line differences in intake of salt or quinine solutions. However, consumption of saccharin solutions was greater in HAP mice than LAP mice, consistent with previous findings of a genetic correlation between sweet preference and alcohol drinking. Because the mouse genome is relatively well characterized, these selected lines should prove a useful tool for assessment of the genetic basis of, and phenotypes that correlate with, alcohol drinking.