Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) have been extensively used to restore hematopoiesis after myeloablative chemotherapy. While collection regimens designed for optimal mobilization of PBPC are becoming standardized, the ideal venous access option for collection remains unresolved. The purpose of this study was to determine if the venous access of patients could be accurately assessed and appropriate intervention, if necessary, electively undertaken prior to PBPC collection. In this prospective study, 95 consecutive patients about to undergo PBPC collection were evaluated at time of referral to determine the type of venous access necessary for adequate PBPC collection. There were three possible interventions: 1. No access device for patients determined to have an adequate antecubital vein for apheresis access. 2. Insertion of a double lumen Quinton PermCath for those patients with poor antecubital veins. 3. Insertion of a double lumen Hickman catheter for patients with adequate antecubital veins for apheresis but poor peripheral veins for chemotherapy administration. The blood and marrow transplant nurse coordinator evaluated the patients' veins. Of the 95 patients having 192 PBPC collections, 65 were collected using antecubital veins, 21 were collected from PermCaths, and 9 from Hickman catheters. All patients predicted to collect peripherally did so and achieved flow rates equivalent to the PermCath. No patient required urgent line placement at time of PBPC collection. There was no difference in the number of cells collected between the three groups. The result of this study strongly supports a policy of appropriate venous access based on patient vein assessment by experienced nurses.